Along with carbohydrates and fat, protein helps your body produce amino acids, the building blocks of lean muscle. Regardless of your fitness goals, you won’t reach them if protein isn’t a major part of your regular diet.
Protein builds, maintains and restores muscle. It's responsible for healthy blood cells, key enzymes and strengthening the immune system.
In order to build muscle, protein must be consumed with enough carbohydrate calories to provide the body with energy. Otherwise your body will tap into the protein for energy. And if you're avoiding saturated fats, you'll want to avoid certain forms of animal proteins such as heavily marbled beef.
Because it is often recommended to eat protein frequently throughout the day, you might think this means you have to eat beef several times a day, but that's not the case. Here is a short list of plant and animal protein sources:
Whey protein contains many essential amino acids that boost the immune system and promote overall good health. You can find it in dairy foods, but also as a supplement in powdered form or in pre-made post-workout recovery mixes. The flavored powder tastes great sprinkled on oatmeal or mixed with milk, water or juice.
Whey is quickly digested, which makes it great for eating around workouts. Many protein shakes combine whey protein with another type of slow-releasing protein, casein. This mixture provides a combination of fast and slow releasing proteins, which allows for complete coverage over two-and-a-half to three hour window between meals.
Protein shakes with some additional carbohydrate accelerate workout recovery. You can buy shakes in a ready-to-drink container, or easily make them yourself by mixing water with a scoop or packet of powder, so they’re a quick and easy snack that's rich in protein but low in of bad fats.
Whey vs Casein
Most protein supplements are made from either whey protein, casein protein, or a mixture of the two. The major difference between these two milk proteins is the rate of absorption:
Post-training supplements containing a mixture of both fast and slow proteins are superior to their individual counterparts because they not only induce muscle-protein synthesis but they also help to prevent muscle-protein degradation.
It is important to choose low fat protein sources, or protein sources that contain healthier fats (e.g. nuts, seeds, fish)
Complete Proteins Vs Incomplete Proteins
When choosing a protein, consider quality. Proteins can be divided into two categories: complete and incomplete.
Generally speaking, complete proteins are of better quality than incomplete proteins. But you can also create complementary proteins to form a complete protein to ensure that your body gets all the amino acids it needs. Examples:
How Much Protein?
Healthy, active individuals should aim to consume 0.6 to 0.8 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight. If a person weighs, say, 180 pounds, then the protein target would be between 108 to 144 grams of protein per day. Generally speaking, the leaner and more active you are, the higher the protein intake should be on that scale. That might sound like a lot, but consider how much protein is in common foods such as the ones listed below:
In general, protein intake that greatly exceeds the recommended level does not help build extra muscle mass.